«LANGUAGE AND REASONING ANImAL COmmUNICAtION AND HUmAN LANGUAGE LANGUAGE ORIGINS 1 РАЗУМНОЕ ПОВЕДЕНИЕ И ЯЗЫК LANGUAGE AND REASONING LANGUAGE AND REASONING Vo l u m e 1 ...»
A. D. Koshelev On qualitative difference between human being and anthropoid...... The children’s mental representation is a multilevel hierarchic structure which reflects, in the same way as the rings of a tree do, the stages of the cognitive and speech development. On the first (initial) level of the child’s development (age under 6—7 months) his world is integral, his speech is inarticulate (“prattle”). In a process of cognitive development the second level appears (the age from 7—8 to 18 months), the same world becomes differentiated by the isolated situations, and the speech becomes articulated (“holo-phrases”). Then goes (from 18 to 24 months) the third level which is characterized by the fact that each situation is divided into separated objects (“telegraphic speech”).
After that goes exclusively human stage of the cognitive development that causes the subsequent level, on which the objects are the sets of its constituent parts. The child achieves qualitatively new understanding of the world, the “speech explosion” begins. The cognitive development of the anthropoids comes to an end
Contentson the previous, third level (the level of the separated objects), that limits their understanding of the world as well as their speech potential (“telegraphic speech of the speaking anthropoids”).
E. N. Panov Tool using and communication of chimpanzee in nature.......... In researches of a problem of beginnings and evolution of human’s verbal behavior the great attention is given to relation of language and tool using of early hominids. The tool using of chimpanzee is a matter of the special interest for the understanding of evolution of behavior in the higher primates branch, leading to human. Expediency of this activity points to the ability of chimpanzee for rational planning of long operation sequences. This quality of mind appears to be the most important precondition for formation of language behavior.
The article is viewing about 40 variants of goal-directed use of different tools by chimpanzee. The special attention is concentrated on the traditions of using tools in local populations, as well as on the mechanisms of experience transfers from adults to youngs. The structure of chimpanzee’s communication in nature and in the conditions which are close to natural is also discussed, as well as its role in social organization of chimpanzee bands in nature.
Steven Pinker, Ray Jackendoff The Components of Language:
What’s Specific to Language, and What’s Specific to Humans?...... We examine the question of which aspects of language are uniquely human and uniquely linguistic. We find that many aspects of grammar are not recursive, such as phonology, morphology, case, agreement, and many properties of words.
Experiments suggest that speech perception cannot be reduced to primate audition, that word learning cannot be reduced to fact learning, and that at least one gene involved in speech and language was evolutionarily selected in the human lineage but is not specific to recursion. Much of the narrow faculty is overlaid on previously existing capacities such as the capacity for combinatoriality, which in some cases but not others gives rise to recursion. This makes it difficult to peel off just those aspects of language that are unique to human and unique to language.
Zh. I. Reznikova Analytical review of temporal methodological approach to the study of animal language behaviour.................. The main approaches for studying animal language behaviour are compared:
(1) direct decoding of signals, (2) the use of intermediary languages; (3) the use of ideas and methods of the information theory. Deciphering animals’ signals reveals a complex picture of natural communication in its evolutionary perspective but only fragmentary because of many methodological barriers, among which low repeatability of standard living situations seems to be a bottleneck. Languagetraining experiments are of great help for discovering potentials of animal language behaviour but leaves characteristics of their natural communications unclear. The use of the methods of information theory is based on measuring the time duration which animals spend on transmitting messages of definite information content.
This approach, although does not reveal the nature of animals’ signals, provides a new dimension for studying important characteristics of natural communication systems such as evaluation of the rate of information transmission, animals’ ability for transferring meaningful messages, and potential flexibility of communication E. A. Sergienko Cognitive development of preverbal children................ The review was argued continuity in the cognitive development of infants, which proceeded to the verbal explosion. The different acquisitions in all domains of early cognitive development accumulated for the transition from preverbal to verbal level gradually. The author offered that for the transition to the verbal level it was necessary the development of the cognitive domains such as deferred imitation, self cognition, categorization, preverbal communication. The continuity of cognitive development was followed from evolution to ontogenesis of human.
The distinction the animal cognitive model from human cognitive model consisted in the out of situations and the development of metacognitions. The appearance of the verbal shift can be described as the regular transition of the dynamic system to a new level organization by the reinforcement of the different components of cognitive development.
V. S. Friedmann New approaches in analysis of signal behaviour and communicatio in verterbrates (the reasons of sign concept of communication)...... We investigated features of vertebrates signalization systems evolution. There are two groups of such features for different levels of communicative system progress — motivational signals and referential signals. Demonstrations for motivational signals (releasers) play a role of motivation level and following animal behavior indicators. Demonstrations for referential signals have an external referent and reflect alternative categories of problem situations, which are generated in interaction. These categories are «names» of different situations and programs Motivational signals force something to react as it necessary for next process stage. Referential signals let something to choose its reaction freely. They are arbitrary signs in its structure and function.
We described evolution preferences of referential signals in different phylogenetic branchs and different communicational contexts. Owing to these
Contentspreferences releaser communicative systems of ancient species convert into referential communicative systems using homological demonstrations in the same T. V. Chernigovskaya What Makes us Human: Why Recursive Rules Sine Qua Non?
The paper’ topic is a problem of language and cognitive specificity in humans in comparison to other species in association with a widely discussed paper Hauser, M., Chomsky, N. & Fitch, W. T. The Language Faculty: What is it, who has it, and how did it evolve? 2002. The main hypotheses of human evolution and the emergence of language are observed as well research of genetic basis of higher functions. Cognitive abilities of other animals, their communication signals and the main views on basic principles of brain organization underlying language and mind are considered.
От составителей A Note on This Edition The collection includes the extended texts of the presentations given by the participants of the Forum “Communication of Humans and Animals: A View of Linguists and Biologists”, which took place in Moscow in September 2007, as well as the essays of several invited authors.
The main objective of the Forum was to give common ground for a spontaneous dialogue of scientists and scholars representing various fields of research — linguists, biologists, psychologists, geneticists, etc., so that they could discuss the most promising approaches to the study of communication mechanisms in humans and animals. This explains the cross-disciplinary and generalizing character of most of the essays in the collection.
Several papers in this volume discuss both the already approved and the newlyobtained results of experiments concerning the teaching of anthropoid mediatorlanguages. Other authors undertake the analysis of the “language of speaking anthropoids” comparing it with human language as well as with highly developed communication systems of some other animals (bees, green marmosets, ants, etc).
The range of the themes represented in the volume includes, but is not limited to, tool-involving — instrumental — activity and communication of chimpanzees in nature, the analysis of the degree of similarity of intellectual potential in chimpanzees and humans, the description of the general properties of processing and information transfer in human and animal communities.
The adjoining range of discussed themes include cognitive models and mechanisms of language and cognition, the influence of various factors on the first language acquisition in children, first language acquisition by children, the discovery of unique human constituents of such mechanisms (recursive procedures, multilevel hierarchical cognitive structures, specifics of higher functions, the universal character of human language, etc.
Finally, another important sphere of problems is discussed — the evolution of signal and zoosemiotic systems and the ability of these systems to transform into proper human language, the criteria of language structure.
It is clear, that such cross-disciplinary discussions bear fruit only if the participants, who use the languages of their own domain, learn to understand each other. The problem of cross-disciplinary understanding advances an urgent task — that of reaching the agreement about terminology and — in perspective — developing the common systems of terms and definitions. It is only logical that many essays in this collection contain passages aiming at the unification of terminology.
The extensive experimental material that has been accumulated needs serious theorizing and the construction of general cognitive models. The coming years will provide, as we expect, the apparent progress of such research. Such forums, if arranged on a regular basis, as it has been suggested, may turn to be very productive.
Предлагаемый вниманию читателя сборник содержит расширенные тексты докладов участников Круглого стола «Коммуникация человека и животных: Взгляд лингвиста и биолога», состоявшегося в Москве в сентябре 2007 года, а также статьи некоторых приглашенных авторов.
Главной целью КС было соединить в живом диалоге специалистов разных наук:
лингвистов, биологов, психологов, генетиков и др. для обсуждения наиболее перспективных подходов к изучению механизмов коммуникации у животных и человека. Поэтому большинство статей сборника носит междисциплинарный и обобщающий характер.
Ряд статей посвящен обсуждению известных и новых результатов по обучению антропоидов «языкам-посредникам» и сопоставительному анализу «языка “говорящих” антропоидов» как с языком человека, так и с развитыми коммуникативными системами животных (пчел, зеленых мартышек, муравьев и др.).
К этому кругу тем относится обсуждение орудийной деятельности и коммуникации шимпанзе в естественных условиях, анализ «степени близости» интеллектуальных возможностей шимпанзе и человека, описание общих свойств обработки и передачи информации в сообществах людей и животных и пр.