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Zbir raportw naukowych. Z 40 Zbir raportw naukowych. Science - od teorii do praktyki. (29.03.2013 Sopot: Wydawca: Sp. z o.o. Diamond trading tour, 2013. - 52 str. ...

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Z 40

Wydawca: Sp. z o.o. Diamond trading tour

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Zbir raportw naukowych.

Z 40 Zbir raportw naukowych. Science - od teorii do praktyki. (29.03.2013 Sopot: Wydawca: Sp. z o.o. Diamond trading tour, 2013. - 52 str.

ISBN: 978-83-63620-96-7 (t.5/1) Zbir raportw naukowych. Wykonane na materiaach Miedzynarodowej NaukowiPraktycznej Konferencji 29.03.2013 - 31.03.2013 roku. Sopot.

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ISBN: 978-83-63620-96-7 (t.5/1) "Diamond trading tour"

SPIS /

SEKCJA 22. FILOLOGI.

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Science - od teorii do praktyki 1. Zakaraia I. K.

NIKO NIKOLADZE AND EUROPEAN LITERATURE

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NIKO NIKOLADZE AND EUROPEAN LITERATURE

Georgia and Europe have centuries-old literary relations. Since ancient times Georgia and Georgian people have revealed their interest in Europe and established contacts with European countries that is reflected in Georgian-European literary relations.

The interest was not one-sided. The references to Georgia can be found in the works of European authors since ancient times. Stories about the adventure of the Argonauts for gaining Golden Fleece considerably contributed to the popularity of Georgian people. Also, the character of Colchis woman, Medea, presented in Euripides tragedy, played a significant role in this aspect [1, p.273].

From then onwards, Georgian theme has appeared in the works of foreign authors, the logical result of which was the establishment of Kartvelology Centers in various European countries. Along with other issues, these centers paid a lot of attention to the study of one of the oldest and richest literature in the world - Georgian literature.

Georgian literature, which covers more than sixteen centuries, and national and human values of which are immeasurable, attracted attention of many European writers.

The fragments from Georgian literature were translated into multiple languages. European authors of different origin, such as French, German, Italian, English, Polish, Belgian, Norwegian, Finnish, Dutch, Romanian, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Czech and others still write about a wide range of issues concerning Georgian literature.

It is well known that no literature is developed in isolation. The development of national literature is achieved by the relations and links with foreign literatures. The relations between Georgian and European literature are bilateral translation of fiction, review of biographies and works of separate writers, revealing of literary parallels, typological similarities and differences, characterization of literary processes, private contacts of writers, etc.

Today, when the cultural relations between nations are much closer and diverse, studying the literary relations of people living in different time and space is very important.



In the given article we will touch upon one of the aspects of Georgian-European relations, specifically Niko NIkoladzes attitude towards European literature.

Science - od teorii do praktyki A thinker far ahead of his time, A person of the XXI century, Great Niko, Leader of technical progress in Georgia, Great Georgian Enlightener this is how Niko Nikoladze was usually addressed.

Niko Nikoladze was a Georgian publicist, literary critic, journalist, public figure, person with encyclopedic knowledge and European education, great thinker and theorist and at the same time practitioner and reformer, tireless defender of Georgian people and his motherland.

Niko Nikoladze was born in 1843. In 1860 he finished gymnasium in Kutaisi (Kutaisi is a city in Georgia). In 1861 he entered St. Petersburg University, Faculty of Law, but he was arrested and expelled from the university for his participation in the protest actions of students. In 1864 Niko Nikoladze moves to Europe in order to continue his studies. He also studied at Sorbonne University. In 1868, at the age of 25, Niko Nikoladze graduated from Zurich University and defended a dissertation on the topic Disarmament and its economic and social consequences. He was awarded a doctoral degree in Law. Earlier, in 1866, Niko Nikoladze published his first book Government and new generation in Switzerland, which was written in French. In 1875 his brochure The press of the decadence was published in Paris, which was also done in French. The brochure drew a wide response in France.

Niko Nikoladze quite often spent his time abroad (France, England, Italy, Switzerland).

He was well acquainted with the life in European leading countries, had close contacts with eminent writers and public figures, among whom were Victor Hugo, Emile Zola, Alphonse Daudet, Giuseppe Garibaldi, Louis Blanche, Victor Henri Rochefort, Yves Gio, mile de Girardin, Erkman Shatrian, Jean Jaures and others. Niko Nokoladze was held in respect as a progressively thinking public figure, talented publicist and critic. He actively participated in political, philosophical and literary life of Europe. Niko Nikoladze spoke several European languages; he collaborated with Georgian, Russian, European journals and newspapers.

He formed Georgian and Russian periodical organs, where he also worked as an editor. As a publicist, his sphere of interests was quite versatile. Niko Nikoladze responded to every significant event and issue of his time. He wrote about the freedom of country and individual liberty, politics, economics, social and military issues, education, culture, women rights, judges, jurors, etc. And of course, he wrote about writers. In the period of 1894-1912 he was elected as a Head of the town Poti. In 1917 with his support and participation Georgian National-Democratic party was established. He was an honorary chairperson of this party.

In the XIX century Georgia was a colonial country. It was a part of Russian Empire.

On May 26, 1918 Georgia declared independence and Niko Nikoladze signed the Act of State Independence Restoration.

Niko Nikoladze died on April 1, 1928. His objectives were centered at the success of his country, development of society through kindness, progress and democratic values. Niko Nikoladze tried to achieve his objectives by means of his writings and practical activities.

Acquainted with European civilization, imbued with European ideas, Niko Nikoladze was striving for implementation of European values in Georgia. He paid great attention to the study of life in developed countries, their experience and achievements, in case of necessity their usage, as well. With his writings Georgian publicist was trying to inform, acknowledge and promote scientific knowledge among readers which would contribute to the development and advance of the society.

In the scientific literature it was numerously stated, that Georgian public figures aspired to Europeanization of the country, since they linked advancement of Georgia with European path of development. They were trying to exploit creatively ongoing processes in Europe and include Georgian culture into European intellectual sphere.

Along with the grown interest towards Europe, the interest towards European literature in Georgian society was growing as well. In the XIX century the translation of foreign fiction is done with more intensity; more articles about the biographies of European writers and separate aspects of their works, as well as European literary news are published in journals and magazines, that contributes to the popularization of European culture in Georgia.

What kind of attitude did Niko Nikoladze have towards European literature?

Niko Nikoladze had a good knowledge of foreign literature and appraised it very much. He expressed interesting ideas about different European writers.

From the very beginning, critical letters of Niko Nikoladze set up right vision of English literature in Georgia [7, p. 20].

In Georgian critics opinion, Byron holds pride of place among English writers of XIX century. He highlighted Byrons incredible will-power and wild soul, which was always in service for public. From Niko Nikoladzes point of view, English poet was searching a better society and the key to his works lays in this searching. Byrons sad poems will get public interest till the state of people does not change, until the loneliness of those similar to Byron becomes impossible [2, p. 218-220].

N. Nikoladze expressed his attitude towards Thackeray and Dickens [2, p. 222-224].

Among the works of Thackeray he named Vanity Fair to be the best, which in accordance to Georgian critic belongs to that small number of novels which create epochs in the process of literature development or represent the best monuments of the epoch.



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